**No: **EE 485

**Title:** Introduction to Photonics

**Credits:** 4

**Coordinator: **Lih Lin, Professor of Electrical Engineering

**Goals: **To acquaint students with vocabulary, major principles and
phenomena of modern optics and photonic devices.

**Learning Objectives:**

At the end of this course, students will be able to:

*Explain*major concepts of electromagnetic theory.*Describe*light propagation in free space and materials.*Derive and explain*equations for interference and diffraction phenomena.*Apply*polarization to treatment of light.*Perform*analysis of optical resonators and waveguiding structures.*Describe*the concept of photons and how laser works.*Design**and use*various semiconductor photonic devices.

**Textbook:**

F. L.
Pedrotti L. S. Pedrotti, and L. M. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics, 3^{rd}
ed., Prentice Hall, 2007.

**Reference Texts:**

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, "Fundamentals of Photonics", John Wiley & Sons, 1991.

J. T. Verdeyen, Laser
Electronics, 3^{rd} ed., Prentice Hall, 1995.

S. O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and
Photonics, 2^{nd} 3d., Prentice Hall, 2012.

**Prerequisites by Topic:**

- Basic principles of electromagnetism (PHYS 122, PHYS 123, EE 361, or Equivalent)
- Complex numbers and functions
- Introductory differential and integral calculus, linear differential equations

**Topics:**

**Geometrical optics:**Reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, applications in optical fibers.**Electromagnetic theory of light:**Optical wave functions, wave equations, Maxwell's equations in various media, energy flow and absorption.**Interference:**Principle of superposition and interference, two-beam interference and interferometry, multi-wave interference, Fabry-Perot interferometer, group/phase velocity and dispersion.**Diffraction:**Fraunhofer diffraction, Fresnel diffraction, diffraction gratings.**Polarization:**Jones vectors and Jones matrices, Fresnel equations, polarization devices.**Photon, laser, and Gaussian-beam optics:**Photon optics, laser basics, optical resonators, Gaussian beam, transmission of Gaussian beams through optical components.**Semiconductor optics:**Basic semiconductor physics, interaction of photons with semiconductors, absorption and emission.**Semiconductor photonic devices:**p-n junctions, light-emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers, photodetectors and photovoltaic devices.

**Course Structure:** Class meets for two lectures a week, each
consisting of a 100 minute session with 10 minute break in between. There is
weekly homework assignment. There are two exams (one midterm and one final). If
a TA is assigned to this course, there will be one final project. The final
project is a team work. Each team will submit a project report.

**Computer Resources:** None required, although Mathcad, Matlab or
Mathematica may be useful for some of the homework assignments.

**Laboratory Resources: **Not
required.

**Grading: **Homework (40%), Midterm exam (30%), Final
exam (30%). If a final project is included, then Homework (30%), Midterm
exam (25%), Final exam (25%), Final project report (20%).

**Outcome Coverage:**

(a) *An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and
engineering.* The course applies knowledge of mathematics to description and
analysis of optical phenomena. Electromagnetic theory and optics formalisms are
used throughout the course. Relevance: High.

(b)* An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and
interpret data.* The final project, if included, requires conducting experiments.
General guidance will be given, but specific procedures will be designed by
each team as they attempt to answer specific questions. Experimental design and
the conduct of experiments will be tested through final project reports (20% of
the final grade). There are also some in-class experiments for this course.
Relevance: Low.

(c)* An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired
needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social,
political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability. *Analysis and design of photonic
components and systems are introduced throughout the course. Together with
associated homework and examination problems, they challenge the students to
understand design rules for advanced optical components and systems to be
applied in real world. Relevance: Low.

(d) *An ability to function on
multi-disciplinary teams.* To perform well in this class requires
understanding of basic knowledge in Electrical Engineering, Physics, and
Mathematics. The class has been attended by students from EE, Physics,
Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Material Science and Engineering, Applied
Math. Relevance: Medium.

(e) *An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.*
The course projects involve identifying engineering problems associated with
design and analysis of optical systems. Students are assigned homework and
challenged to formulate their individual solutions. Relevance: High.

(h) *The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering
solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context.* Photonics
has made its impact in optical fiber communications, and has become a required
knowledge for various interdisciplinary fields such as nanoscience, nanotechnology,
and biophotonics. Through this course, students will be able to learn the
impact of photonics on various innovation and problems related to these fields.
Relevance: Low.

(k) *An ability to use the techniques,
skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.* To
solve problems in photonics requires the ability to use several basic tools,
skills, and tools in engineering. Relevance: Medium.

**Preparers:** Lih Y. Lin

**Last Revised:** October 4, 2012