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Joshua R. Smith

  • Associate Professor

Appointments

Associate Professor, Electrical Engineering
Associate Professor, Computer Science and Engineering

Biography

Joshua R. Smith is an associate professor of electrical engineering and of computer science and engineering at the University of Washington, where he leads the Sensor Systems Laboratory. He was named an Allen Distinguished Investigator by the Paul G. Allen Family Foundation and he is a Thrust Leader in the NSF Engineering Research Center on Sensorimotor Neural Engineering (CSNE).  His research focuses on inventing new sensor systems, devising new ways to power them and developing algorithms for using them. This research has applications in the domains of implanted medical devices, robotics, and ubiquitous computing.

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                    [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_10529" align="alignleft" width="407"]WiBotic CEO Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15) WiBotic CEO Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15)[/caption]

WiBotic, the technology company developing wirelessly-powered drones and robotic devices, has secured $2.5 million. This new funding round will bring the company to a total of $3.25 million in funding. This support will enhance product development and boost sales and marketing.

The company was founded by WiBotic CEO and UW Department of Electrical Engineering (UW EE) alum Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15) and UW EE and UW Allen School Professor Joshua Smith when Waters was a graduate student in the department. WiBotic currently delivers wireless robotics to companies in variety of fields for large-scale societal impact. Even though it is only 2-years-old, the ten-person company has already seen several significant milestones.

WiBotic customers are utilizing the product to deliver medical supplies in developing nations, reduce excess water usage in agriculture, strengthen safe extraction of offshore oil and gas, monitor contamination levels in the ocean and respond to emergency situations more quickly. In November, WiBotic was named a "GeekWire Seattle Top Ten" as one of the most promising new startups in the region. Waters was named a Puget Sound Business Journal "40 Under 40" for his entrepreneurial energy and passion for innovation.

“For two and a half years we have been developing innovative solutions for the robotics industry and I’m excited that several prestigious new investors are joining our team,” said Waters in a recent press release. “We look forward to the expertise and strategic thinking these firms will add to our strong team as we continue to provide critical infrastructure for robotic applications worldwide.”

WiBotic's investment partners include Tsing Capital (the leader of the company's recent investment round), Comet Labs, Digi Labs, and follow-on investors W Fund, WRF Capital and Wisemont Capital.

“The robotics industry has an intense need for the wireless power and battery intelligence solutions that WiBotic has built,” said Michael Li, managing partner of Tsing Capital in the press release. “WiBotic has been gaining strong traction in several industries and we see immense growth potential as the global robotics industry soars.” Tsing Capital is China’s leading fund management company, which is dedicated to sustainable technology  in China and globally.

In addition to the new investment, WiBotic also announced the company's move to a new state-of-the-art engineering and testing facility at the University of Washington’s CoMotion Labs. At the lab's incubator program headquarters, WiBotic will continue to expand upon its core technology in a collaborative research hub.

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Original press release

More News:

[post_title] => Startup WiBotic Raises $2.5M to Charge Drones and Robots Wirelessly [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => startup-wibotic-raises-2-5m-to-charge-drones-and-robots-wirelessly [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-04-26 16:11:14 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-26 23:11:14 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=10521 [menu_order] => 13 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10056 [post_author] => 12 [post_date] => 2017-03-01 11:57:07 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-03-01 19:57:07 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_10059" align="alignleft" width="483"]32346370844_7f8758bdd8_k The UW team used conductive thread to sew an antenna into this cotton T-shirt and transmit data to a smartphone via ambient FM radio signals. Credit: University of Washington[/caption]

Imagine you’re waiting in your car and a poster for a concert from a local band catches your eye. What if you could just tune your car to a radio station and actually listen to that band’s music? Or perhaps you see the poster on the side of a bus stop. What if it could send your smartphone a link for discounted tickets or give you directions to the venue?

Going further, imagine you go for a run, and your shirt can sense your perspiration and send data on your vital signs directly to your phone.

A new technique pioneered by University of Washington electrical engineers and computer science engineers makes these “smart” posters and clothing a reality by allowing them to communicate directly with your car’s radio or your smartphone. For instance, bus stop billboards could send digital content about local attractions. A street sign could broadcast the name of an intersection or notice that it is safe to cross a street, improving accessibility for the disabled. In addition, clothing with integrated sensors could monitor vital signs and send them to a phone.

“What we want to do is enable smart cities and fabrics where everyday objects in outdoor environments — whether it’s posters or street signs or even the shirt you’re wearing — can ‘talk’ to you by sending information to your phone or car,” said lead faculty and UW assistant professor of computer science and engineering Shyam Gollakota.

“The challenge is that radio technologies like WiFi, Bluetooth and conventional FM radios would last less than half a day with a coin cell battery when transmitting," said co-author and UW electrical engineering doctoral student Vikram Iyer. "So we developed a new way of communication where we send information by reflecting ambient FM radio signals that are already in the air, which consumes close to zero power.”

The UW team has — for the first time — demonstrated how to apply a technique called “backscattering” to outdoor FM radio signals. The new system transmits messages by reflecting and encoding audio and data in these signals that are ubiquitous in urban environments, without affecting the original radio transmissions. Results are published in a paper to be presented in Boston at the 14th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation in March.

The team demonstrated that a “singing poster” for the band Simply Three placed at a bus stop could transmit a snippet of the band’s music, as well as an advertisement for the band, to a smartphone at a distance of 12 feet or to a car over 60 feet away. They overlaid the audio and data on top of ambient news signals from a local NPR radio station.

“FM radio signals are everywhere. You can listen to music or news in your car and it’s a common way for us to get our information,” said co-author and UW computer science and engineering doctoral student Anran Wang. “So what we do is basically make each of these everyday objects into a mini FM radio station at almost zero power.”

Such ubiquitous low-power connectivity can also enable smart fabric applications such as clothing integrated with sensors to monitor a runner’s gait and vital signs that transmits the information directly to a user’s phone. In a second demonstration, the researchers from the UW Networks & Mobile Systems Lab used conductive thread to sew an antenna into a cotton T-shirt, which was able to use ambient radio signals to transmit data to a smartphone at rates up to 3.2 kilobits per second. 

The system works by taking an everyday FM radio signal broadcast from an urban radio tower. The “smart” poster or T-shirt uses a low-power reflector to manipulate the signal in a way that encodes the desired audio or data on top of the FM broadcast to send a “message” to the smartphone receiver on an unoccupied frequency in the FM radio band.

“Our system doesn’t disturb existing FM radio frequencies,” said co-author Joshua Smith, UW associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science and engineering. “We send our messages on an adjacent band that no one is using — so we can piggyback on your favorite news or music channel without disturbing the original transmission.”

The team demonstrated three different methods for sending audio signals and data using FM backscatter: one simply overlays the new information on top of the existing signals, another takes advantage of unused portions of a stereo FM broadcast, and the third uses cooperation between two smartphones to decode the message.

“Because of the unique structure of FM radio signals, multiplying the original signal with the backscattered signal actually produces an additive frequency change,” said co-author Vamsi Talla, a UW EE alum (Ph.D. '16) and a postdoctoral researcher in computer science and engineering. “These frequency changes can be decoded as audio on the normal FM receivers built into cars and smartphones.”

In the team’s demonstrations, the total power consumption of the backscatter system was 11 microwatts, which could be easily supplied by a tiny coin-cell battery for a couple of years, or powered using tiny solar cells.

The research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation and Google Faculty Research Awards.

More News:

[post_title] => UW Researchers Turn Everyday Objects into FM Radio Stations [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => uw-researchers-turn-everyday-objects-into-fm-radio-stations [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-03-13 11:00:50 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-03-13 18:00:50 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=10056 [menu_order] => 31 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 9801 [post_author] => 12 [post_date] => 2017-02-01 11:18:02 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-02-01 19:18:02 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_9813" align="aligncenter" width="951"]screen-shot-2017-02-01-at-11-25-37-am From left to right: Associate Professor Josh Smith, Assistant Professor of CSE Shyam Gollakota, CSE postdoctoral researcher Vamsi Talla, Ph.D. student Bryce Kellogg and Ph.D. student Aaron Parks[/caption] UW Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering researchers have raised $1.2 million to develop and commercialize a power-efficient way to generate Wi-Fi transmissions. This funding will support the UW-based start-up, Jeeva Wireless. This company seeks to revolutionize the way devices communicate by enabling breakthrough transmission efficiency. Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering Josh Smith and Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering and Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering Shyam Gollakota co-founded the company alongside researchers Vamsi Talla (Ph.D. ’15), Bryce Kellogg (M.S. ’15) and Aaron Parks (M.S. ’15). The company has launched the Passive Wi-Fi system that can generate WiFi transmissions using 10,000 times less power than conventional methods. Low-power options, such as Bluetooth Low Energy and Zigbee, cannot match the system’s energy efficiency. Because of this, the project has landed the UW team in MIT Technology Review’s top-ten list of breakthrough technologies in 2016. Digital vs. analog is the key to increasing efficiency while increasing power. The system uses a single plugged-in device for power-intensive analog functions, such as producing a radio signal at a specific frequency. Other sensors produce the Wi-Fi pockets of information by reflecting and absorbing the signal, using digital switches that require virtually no energy. Prototype sensors could connect with a smartphone, tablet, or other smart device at distances of up to 100 feet. “Our sensors can talk to any router, smartphone, tablet or other electronic device with a Wi-Fi chipset,” said Passive Wi-Fi co-author and electrical engineering doctoral student Bryce Kellogg in a news release. “The cool thing is that all these devices can decode the Wi-Fi packets we created using reflections so you don’t need specialized equipment.” Passive Wi-Fi could open the way for applications that currently require too much power for regular Wi-Fi. For example, other types of communication platforms have been required in the past for smart-home sensor systems that can detect which doors are open, or whether the kids have come home from school. “Even though so many homes already have Wi-Fi, it hasn’t been the best choice for that,” Smith said in the news release on Passive Wi-Fi. “Now that we can achieve Wi-Fi for tens of microwatts of power and can do much better than both Bluetooth and ZigBee, you could now imagine using Wi-Fi for everything.” Additional News: GeekWire   [post_title] => Researchers Raise $1.2M for the Development of Breakthrough Passive Wi-Fi [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => uw-researchers-raise-1-2m-for-the-development-of-breakthrough-passive-wi-fi [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-03-07 10:58:11 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-03-07 18:58:11 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=9801 [menu_order] => 41 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [3] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 6865 [post_author] => 15 [post_date] => 2016-08-19 21:06:45 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-08-19 21:06:45 [post_content] => ScreenShot2016-08-17at11.52.54AM

Researchers and faculty in the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering have introduced a new way of communicating that allows devices such as brain implants, contact lenses, credit cards and smaller wearable electronics to talk to everyday devices such as smartphones and watches.

This new “Interscatter communication” works by converting Bluetooth signals into Wi-Fi transmissions over the air. Using only reflections, an interscatter device such as a smart contact lens converts Bluetooth signals from a smartwatch, for example, into Wi-Fi transmissions that can be picked up by a smartphone.

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering Josh Smith and electrical engineering Ph.D. students, Bryce Kellog and Vikram Iyer, have worked alongside Computer Science and Engineering Assistant Professor Shyam Gollakota and research associate, Vamsi Talla. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation and Google Faculty Research Awards.

The new technique is described in a paper to be presented Aug. 22 at the annual conference of the Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM 2016) in Brazil.

“Wireless connectivity for implanted devices can transform how we manage chronic diseases,” said co-author Vikram Iyer. “For example, a contact lens could monitor a diabetic’s blood sugar level in tears and send notifications to the phone when the blood sugar level goes down.”

Due to their size and location within the body, these smart contact lenses are currently too constrained by power demands to send data using conventional wireless transmissions. That means they have not been able to send data using Wi-Fi to smartphones and other mobile devices.

Those same power requirements have also limited emerging technologies such as brain implants that treat Parkinson’s disease, stimulate organs and may one day even reanimate limbs.

The team has demonstrated for the first time that these types of power-limited devices can “talk” to others using standard Wi-Fi communication. Their system requires no specialized equipment, relying solely on mobile devices commonly found with users to generate Wi-Fi signals using 10,000 times less energy than conventional methods.

“Instead of generating Wi-Fi signals on your own, our technology creates Wi-Fi by using Bluetooth transmissions from nearby mobile devices such as smartwatches,” said co-author Vamsi Talla, who graduated from The Department of Electrical Engineering this past spring.

The team’s process relies on a communication technique called backscatter, which allows devices to exchange information simply by reflecting existing signals. Because the new technique enables inter-technology communication by using Bluetooth signals to create Wi-Fi transmissions, the team calls it “interscattering.”

Interscatter communication uses the Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or ZigBee radios embedded in common mobile devices like smartphones, watches, laptops, tablets and headsets, to serve as both sources and receivers for these reflected signals.

In one example, the team showed how a smartwatch could transmit a Bluetooth signal to a smart contact lens outfitted with an antenna. To create a blank slate on which new information can be written, the UW team developed an innovative way to transform the Bluetooth transmission into a “single tone” signal that can be further manipulated and transformed. By backscattering that single tone signal, the contact lens can encode data — such as health information it may be collecting — into a standard Wi-Fi packet that can then be read by a smartphone, tablet or laptop.

“Bluetooth devices randomize data transmissions using a process called scrambling,” said lead faculty Shyam Gollakota. “We figured out a way to reverse engineer this scrambling process to send out a single tone signal from Bluetooth-enabled devices such as smartphones and watches using a software app.”

The challenge, however, is that the backscattering process creates an unwanted mirror image copy of the signal, which consumes more bandwidth as well as interferes with networks on the mirror copy Wi-Fi channel. But the UW team developed a technique called “single sideband backscatter” to eliminate the unintended byproduct.

“That means that we can use just as much bandwidth as a Wi-Fi network and you can still have other Wi-Fi networks operate without interference,” said co-author Bryce Kellogg.

The researchers — who work in the UW’sNetworks and Mobile Systems Lab and Sensor Systems Lab — built three proof-of-concept demonstrations for previously infeasible applications, including a smart contact lens and an implantable neural recording device that can communicate directly with smartphones and watches.

“Preserving battery life is very important in implanted medical devices, since replacing the battery in a pacemaker or brain stimulator requires surgery and puts patients at potential risk from those complications,” said co-author Joshua Smith.

“Interscatter can enable Wi-Fi for these implanted devices while consuming only tens of microwatts of power.”

Beyond implanted devices, the researchers have also shown that their technology can apply to other applications such as smart credit cards. The team built credit card prototypes that can communicate directly with each other by reflecting Bluetooth signals coming from a smartphone. This opens up possibilities for smart credit cards that can communicate directly with other cards and enable applications where users can split the bill by just tapping their credit cards together.

“Providing the ability for these everyday objects like credit cards — in addition to implanted devices — to communicate with mobile devices can unleash the power of ubiquitous connectivity,” Gollakota said.

More News:

[post_title] => Smart Contacts and Credit Cards that 'Talk' Wi-Fi [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => ee-faculty-and-students-develop-first-ever-implantable-devices-smart-contacts-and-credit-cards-that-talk-wi-fi [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-10-28 12:39:27 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-10-28 19:39:27 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://hedy.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=6865 [menu_order] => 83 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [4] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 5100 [post_author] => 15 [post_date] => 2016-07-07 18:06:43 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-07-07 18:06:43 [post_content] => ScreenShot2016-06-22at12.32.03PMA group of international researchers with the Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering (CSNE), including Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering Joshua Smith, developed an implantable device that can aid those suffering from spinal cord injuries and incontinence. The researchers advanced to be one of three finalists, receiving $1 million through the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Bioelectronics Innovation Challenge. The CSNE team was one of 11 originally selected by GSK, and the million-dollar funding was awarded to support additional research. The task presented by GSK was to produce an implantable wireless device that could assess, stimulate and block the activity of nerves that control organs. For those with spinal cord injuries or those who experience incontinence, this device could help restore bladder and sexual functions. "For people with spinal cord injuries, restoring sexual function and bladder function are some of their top priorities — higher than regaining the ability to walk," said Chet Moritz, deputy director of the CSNE and UW associate professor of rehabilitation medicine and of physiology and biophysics. "The vision is for these neural devices to be as ubiquitous as pacemakers or deep brain stimulators, where a surgeon implants the device and it's seamless for the patient," he said. "We're really excited to make a difference in people's lives and to help push these technologies forward." The final implantable wireless device will be able to stimulate and block electrical signals that travel along the nerves and control specific organs, similar to turning on and off a switch. Stimulating the pelvic nerve causes the bladder to empty, for example. However, if the signals are blocked, it could help someone who is unable to control his or her bladder. Numerous challenges persist, such as delivering power efficiently and without wires while ensuring the implanted device doesn't overheat inside the body and limiting tissue reactions at the nerve. Overcoming these challenges relies on cross-disciplinary expertise. Smith developed the wireless power transmitter, a similar model to the wireless power systems for drones and robots. Whereas, Moritz and team member Greg Horwitz, UW associate professor of physiology and biophysics, have expertise in optogenetics, which uses light to control neurons. By stimulating, but not physically touching, the pelvic nerve, swelling and scarring may be reduced. Collaborators at The University of Cambridge and University College of London have deep expertise in nerve and bladder physiology, as well as packaging implantable devices, so they don't corrode or breakdown in the body's moist and dynamic environment. One goal of the research is to limit exposure to pharmaceuticals. Wireless devices are more targeted interventions by stimulating or blocking specific nerves, whereas, drugs can affect many systems throughout the body. The devices can also “read” organ function and decipher whether treatment intervention is necessary. "We want to be able to say, 'Right now the blood pressure is high or the bladder is full — does the device need to do something or can the body be left alone?'" said Moritz. "That dramatically lowers the amount of treatment that's needed, as opposed to having someone on a drug 24 hours a day, seven days a week." After the competition concludes, the next steps will be to disseminate the technologies to the wider research community and begin human trials. The goal is to open up treatment options for a wide variety of organs. "The idea is that many groups could be pushing towards different human applications at the same time — not just for the bladder but for any organ. So our platform needs to be robust enough that people can dream wildly about what they want to treat with neural devices rather than pharmaceuticals," said Moritz. The project builds on research begun at CSNE. Early hardware development was supported by funding from thePaul G. Allen Family Foundation, where Smith and Moritz are Allen Distinguished Investigators. "It is gratifying to see the center's hardware research efforts paying off so quickly.  Selection by GlaxoSmithKline in this rigorous international competition shows that technologies emerging from the CSNE are at the leading edge of what is possible," Smith said. 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wp_postmeta.post_id ) INNER JOIN wp_postmeta AS mt1 ON ( wp_posts.ID = mt1.post_id ) WHERE 1=1 AND ( wp_posts.post_date > '2015-05-27 23:59:59' ) AND ( ( wp_postmeta.meta_key = 'type' AND wp_postmeta.meta_value LIKE '%news%' ) AND ( mt1.meta_key = 'subjects' AND mt1.meta_value LIKE '%\"912\"%' ) ) AND wp_posts.post_type = 'spotlight' AND ((wp_posts.post_status = 'publish')) GROUP BY wp_posts.ID ORDER BY wp_posts.menu_order ASC LIMIT 0, 6 [posts] => Array ( [0] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10521 [post_author] => 12 [post_date] => 2017-04-26 15:59:54 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-04-26 22:59:54 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_10529" align="alignleft" width="407"]WiBotic CEO Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15) WiBotic CEO Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15)[/caption] WiBotic, the technology company developing wirelessly-powered drones and robotic devices, has secured $2.5 million. This new funding round will bring the company to a total of $3.25 million in funding. This support will enhance product development and boost sales and marketing. The company was founded by WiBotic CEO and UW Department of Electrical Engineering (UW EE) alum Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15) and UW EE and UW Allen School Professor Joshua Smith when Waters was a graduate student in the department. WiBotic currently delivers wireless robotics to companies in variety of fields for large-scale societal impact. Even though it is only 2-years-old, the ten-person company has already seen several significant milestones. WiBotic customers are utilizing the product to deliver medical supplies in developing nations, reduce excess water usage in agriculture, strengthen safe extraction of offshore oil and gas, monitor contamination levels in the ocean and respond to emergency situations more quickly. In November, WiBotic was named a "GeekWire Seattle Top Ten" as one of the most promising new startups in the region. Waters was named a Puget Sound Business Journal "40 Under 40" for his entrepreneurial energy and passion for innovation. “For two and a half years we have been developing innovative solutions for the robotics industry and I’m excited that several prestigious new investors are joining our team,” said Waters in a recent press release. “We look forward to the expertise and strategic thinking these firms will add to our strong team as we continue to provide critical infrastructure for robotic applications worldwide.” WiBotic's investment partners include Tsing Capital (the leader of the company's recent investment round), Comet Labs, Digi Labs, and follow-on investors W Fund, WRF Capital and Wisemont Capital. “The robotics industry has an intense need for the wireless power and battery intelligence solutions that WiBotic has built,” said Michael Li, managing partner of Tsing Capital in the press release. “WiBotic has been gaining strong traction in several industries and we see immense growth potential as the global robotics industry soars.” Tsing Capital is China’s leading fund management company, which is dedicated to sustainable technology  in China and globally. In addition to the new investment, WiBotic also announced the company's move to a new state-of-the-art engineering and testing facility at the University of Washington’s CoMotion Labs. At the lab's incubator program headquarters, WiBotic will continue to expand upon its core technology in a collaborative research hub.

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[post_title] => Startup WiBotic Raises $2.5M to Charge Drones and Robots Wirelessly [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => startup-wibotic-raises-2-5m-to-charge-drones-and-robots-wirelessly [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-04-26 16:11:14 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-26 23:11:14 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=10521 [menu_order] => 13 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10056 [post_author] => 12 [post_date] => 2017-03-01 11:57:07 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-03-01 19:57:07 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_10059" align="alignleft" width="483"]32346370844_7f8758bdd8_k The UW team used conductive thread to sew an antenna into this cotton T-shirt and transmit data to a smartphone via ambient FM radio signals. Credit: University of Washington[/caption]

Imagine you’re waiting in your car and a poster for a concert from a local band catches your eye. What if you could just tune your car to a radio station and actually listen to that band’s music? Or perhaps you see the poster on the side of a bus stop. What if it could send your smartphone a link for discounted tickets or give you directions to the venue?

Going further, imagine you go for a run, and your shirt can sense your perspiration and send data on your vital signs directly to your phone.

A new technique pioneered by University of Washington electrical engineers and computer science engineers makes these “smart” posters and clothing a reality by allowing them to communicate directly with your car’s radio or your smartphone. For instance, bus stop billboards could send digital content about local attractions. A street sign could broadcast the name of an intersection or notice that it is safe to cross a street, improving accessibility for the disabled. In addition, clothing with integrated sensors could monitor vital signs and send them to a phone.

“What we want to do is enable smart cities and fabrics where everyday objects in outdoor environments — whether it’s posters or street signs or even the shirt you’re wearing — can ‘talk’ to you by sending information to your phone or car,” said lead faculty and UW assistant professor of computer science and engineering Shyam Gollakota.

“The challenge is that radio technologies like WiFi, Bluetooth and conventional FM radios would last less than half a day with a coin cell battery when transmitting," said co-author and UW electrical engineering doctoral student Vikram Iyer. "So we developed a new way of communication where we send information by reflecting ambient FM radio signals that are already in the air, which consumes close to zero power.”

The UW team has — for the first time — demonstrated how to apply a technique called “backscattering” to outdoor FM radio signals. The new system transmits messages by reflecting and encoding audio and data in these signals that are ubiquitous in urban environments, without affecting the original radio transmissions. Results are published in a paper to be presented in Boston at the 14th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation in March.

The team demonstrated that a “singing poster” for the band Simply Three placed at a bus stop could transmit a snippet of the band’s music, as well as an advertisement for the band, to a smartphone at a distance of 12 feet or to a car over 60 feet away. They overlaid the audio and data on top of ambient news signals from a local NPR radio station.

“FM radio signals are everywhere. You can listen to music or news in your car and it’s a common way for us to get our information,” said co-author and UW computer science and engineering doctoral student Anran Wang. “So what we do is basically make each of these everyday objects into a mini FM radio station at almost zero power.”

Such ubiquitous low-power connectivity can also enable smart fabric applications such as clothing integrated with sensors to monitor a runner’s gait and vital signs that transmits the information directly to a user’s phone. In a second demonstration, the researchers from the UW Networks & Mobile Systems Lab used conductive thread to sew an antenna into a cotton T-shirt, which was able to use ambient radio signals to transmit data to a smartphone at rates up to 3.2 kilobits per second. 

The system works by taking an everyday FM radio signal broadcast from an urban radio tower. The “smart” poster or T-shirt uses a low-power reflector to manipulate the signal in a way that encodes the desired audio or data on top of the FM broadcast to send a “message” to the smartphone receiver on an unoccupied frequency in the FM radio band.

“Our system doesn’t disturb existing FM radio frequencies,” said co-author Joshua Smith, UW associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science and engineering. “We send our messages on an adjacent band that no one is using — so we can piggyback on your favorite news or music channel without disturbing the original transmission.”

The team demonstrated three different methods for sending audio signals and data using FM backscatter: one simply overlays the new information on top of the existing signals, another takes advantage of unused portions of a stereo FM broadcast, and the third uses cooperation between two smartphones to decode the message.

“Because of the unique structure of FM radio signals, multiplying the original signal with the backscattered signal actually produces an additive frequency change,” said co-author Vamsi Talla, a UW EE alum (Ph.D. '16) and a postdoctoral researcher in computer science and engineering. “These frequency changes can be decoded as audio on the normal FM receivers built into cars and smartphones.”

In the team’s demonstrations, the total power consumption of the backscatter system was 11 microwatts, which could be easily supplied by a tiny coin-cell battery for a couple of years, or powered using tiny solar cells.

The research was funded in part by the National Science Foundation and Google Faculty Research Awards.

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[post_title] => UW Researchers Turn Everyday Objects into FM Radio Stations [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => uw-researchers-turn-everyday-objects-into-fm-radio-stations [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-03-13 11:00:50 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-03-13 18:00:50 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=10056 [menu_order] => 31 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 9801 [post_author] => 12 [post_date] => 2017-02-01 11:18:02 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-02-01 19:18:02 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_9813" align="aligncenter" width="951"]screen-shot-2017-02-01-at-11-25-37-am From left to right: Associate Professor Josh Smith, Assistant Professor of CSE Shyam Gollakota, CSE postdoctoral researcher Vamsi Talla, Ph.D. student Bryce Kellogg and Ph.D. student Aaron Parks[/caption] UW Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering researchers have raised $1.2 million to develop and commercialize a power-efficient way to generate Wi-Fi transmissions. This funding will support the UW-based start-up, Jeeva Wireless. This company seeks to revolutionize the way devices communicate by enabling breakthrough transmission efficiency. Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering Josh Smith and Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering and Adjunct Professor of Electrical Engineering Shyam Gollakota co-founded the company alongside researchers Vamsi Talla (Ph.D. ’15), Bryce Kellogg (M.S. ’15) and Aaron Parks (M.S. ’15). The company has launched the Passive Wi-Fi system that can generate WiFi transmissions using 10,000 times less power than conventional methods. Low-power options, such as Bluetooth Low Energy and Zigbee, cannot match the system’s energy efficiency. Because of this, the project has landed the UW team in MIT Technology Review’s top-ten list of breakthrough technologies in 2016. Digital vs. analog is the key to increasing efficiency while increasing power. The system uses a single plugged-in device for power-intensive analog functions, such as producing a radio signal at a specific frequency. Other sensors produce the Wi-Fi pockets of information by reflecting and absorbing the signal, using digital switches that require virtually no energy. Prototype sensors could connect with a smartphone, tablet, or other smart device at distances of up to 100 feet. “Our sensors can talk to any router, smartphone, tablet or other electronic device with a Wi-Fi chipset,” said Passive Wi-Fi co-author and electrical engineering doctoral student Bryce Kellogg in a news release. “The cool thing is that all these devices can decode the Wi-Fi packets we created using reflections so you don’t need specialized equipment.” Passive Wi-Fi could open the way for applications that currently require too much power for regular Wi-Fi. For example, other types of communication platforms have been required in the past for smart-home sensor systems that can detect which doors are open, or whether the kids have come home from school. “Even though so many homes already have Wi-Fi, it hasn’t been the best choice for that,” Smith said in the news release on Passive Wi-Fi. “Now that we can achieve Wi-Fi for tens of microwatts of power and can do much better than both Bluetooth and ZigBee, you could now imagine using Wi-Fi for everything.” Additional News: GeekWire   [post_title] => Researchers Raise $1.2M for the Development of Breakthrough Passive Wi-Fi [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => uw-researchers-raise-1-2m-for-the-development-of-breakthrough-passive-wi-fi [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-03-07 10:58:11 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-03-07 18:58:11 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=9801 [menu_order] => 41 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [3] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 6865 [post_author] => 15 [post_date] => 2016-08-19 21:06:45 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-08-19 21:06:45 [post_content] => ScreenShot2016-08-17at11.52.54AM

Researchers and faculty in the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering have introduced a new way of communicating that allows devices such as brain implants, contact lenses, credit cards and smaller wearable electronics to talk to everyday devices such as smartphones and watches.

This new “Interscatter communication” works by converting Bluetooth signals into Wi-Fi transmissions over the air. Using only reflections, an interscatter device such as a smart contact lens converts Bluetooth signals from a smartwatch, for example, into Wi-Fi transmissions that can be picked up by a smartphone.

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering Josh Smith and electrical engineering Ph.D. students, Bryce Kellog and Vikram Iyer, have worked alongside Computer Science and Engineering Assistant Professor Shyam Gollakota and research associate, Vamsi Talla. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation and Google Faculty Research Awards.

The new technique is described in a paper to be presented Aug. 22 at the annual conference of the Association for Computing Machinery’s Special Interest Group on Data Communication (SIGCOMM 2016) in Brazil.

“Wireless connectivity for implanted devices can transform how we manage chronic diseases,” said co-author Vikram Iyer. “For example, a contact lens could monitor a diabetic’s blood sugar level in tears and send notifications to the phone when the blood sugar level goes down.”

Due to their size and location within the body, these smart contact lenses are currently too constrained by power demands to send data using conventional wireless transmissions. That means they have not been able to send data using Wi-Fi to smartphones and other mobile devices.

Those same power requirements have also limited emerging technologies such as brain implants that treat Parkinson’s disease, stimulate organs and may one day even reanimate limbs.

The team has demonstrated for the first time that these types of power-limited devices can “talk” to others using standard Wi-Fi communication. Their system requires no specialized equipment, relying solely on mobile devices commonly found with users to generate Wi-Fi signals using 10,000 times less energy than conventional methods.

“Instead of generating Wi-Fi signals on your own, our technology creates Wi-Fi by using Bluetooth transmissions from nearby mobile devices such as smartwatches,” said co-author Vamsi Talla, who graduated from The Department of Electrical Engineering this past spring.

The team’s process relies on a communication technique called backscatter, which allows devices to exchange information simply by reflecting existing signals. Because the new technique enables inter-technology communication by using Bluetooth signals to create Wi-Fi transmissions, the team calls it “interscattering.”

Interscatter communication uses the Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or ZigBee radios embedded in common mobile devices like smartphones, watches, laptops, tablets and headsets, to serve as both sources and receivers for these reflected signals.

In one example, the team showed how a smartwatch could transmit a Bluetooth signal to a smart contact lens outfitted with an antenna. To create a blank slate on which new information can be written, the UW team developed an innovative way to transform the Bluetooth transmission into a “single tone” signal that can be further manipulated and transformed. By backscattering that single tone signal, the contact lens can encode data — such as health information it may be collecting — into a standard Wi-Fi packet that can then be read by a smartphone, tablet or laptop.

“Bluetooth devices randomize data transmissions using a process called scrambling,” said lead faculty Shyam Gollakota. “We figured out a way to reverse engineer this scrambling process to send out a single tone signal from Bluetooth-enabled devices such as smartphones and watches using a software app.”

The challenge, however, is that the backscattering process creates an unwanted mirror image copy of the signal, which consumes more bandwidth as well as interferes with networks on the mirror copy Wi-Fi channel. But the UW team developed a technique called “single sideband backscatter” to eliminate the unintended byproduct.

“That means that we can use just as much bandwidth as a Wi-Fi network and you can still have other Wi-Fi networks operate without interference,” said co-author Bryce Kellogg.

The researchers — who work in the UW’sNetworks and Mobile Systems Lab and Sensor Systems Lab — built three proof-of-concept demonstrations for previously infeasible applications, including a smart contact lens and an implantable neural recording device that can communicate directly with smartphones and watches.

“Preserving battery life is very important in implanted medical devices, since replacing the battery in a pacemaker or brain stimulator requires surgery and puts patients at potential risk from those complications,” said co-author Joshua Smith.

“Interscatter can enable Wi-Fi for these implanted devices while consuming only tens of microwatts of power.”

Beyond implanted devices, the researchers have also shown that their technology can apply to other applications such as smart credit cards. The team built credit card prototypes that can communicate directly with each other by reflecting Bluetooth signals coming from a smartphone. This opens up possibilities for smart credit cards that can communicate directly with other cards and enable applications where users can split the bill by just tapping their credit cards together.

“Providing the ability for these everyday objects like credit cards — in addition to implanted devices — to communicate with mobile devices can unleash the power of ubiquitous connectivity,” Gollakota said.

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[post_title] => Smart Contacts and Credit Cards that 'Talk' Wi-Fi [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => ee-faculty-and-students-develop-first-ever-implantable-devices-smart-contacts-and-credit-cards-that-talk-wi-fi [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-10-28 12:39:27 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-10-28 19:39:27 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://hedy.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=6865 [menu_order] => 83 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [4] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 5100 [post_author] => 15 [post_date] => 2016-07-07 18:06:43 [post_date_gmt] => 2016-07-07 18:06:43 [post_content] => ScreenShot2016-06-22at12.32.03PMA group of international researchers with the Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering (CSNE), including Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering Joshua Smith, developed an implantable device that can aid those suffering from spinal cord injuries and incontinence. The researchers advanced to be one of three finalists, receiving $1 million through the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Bioelectronics Innovation Challenge. The CSNE team was one of 11 originally selected by GSK, and the million-dollar funding was awarded to support additional research. The task presented by GSK was to produce an implantable wireless device that could assess, stimulate and block the activity of nerves that control organs. For those with spinal cord injuries or those who experience incontinence, this device could help restore bladder and sexual functions. "For people with spinal cord injuries, restoring sexual function and bladder function are some of their top priorities — higher than regaining the ability to walk," said Chet Moritz, deputy director of the CSNE and UW associate professor of rehabilitation medicine and of physiology and biophysics. "The vision is for these neural devices to be as ubiquitous as pacemakers or deep brain stimulators, where a surgeon implants the device and it's seamless for the patient," he said. "We're really excited to make a difference in people's lives and to help push these technologies forward." The final implantable wireless device will be able to stimulate and block electrical signals that travel along the nerves and control specific organs, similar to turning on and off a switch. Stimulating the pelvic nerve causes the bladder to empty, for example. However, if the signals are blocked, it could help someone who is unable to control his or her bladder. Numerous challenges persist, such as delivering power efficiently and without wires while ensuring the implanted device doesn't overheat inside the body and limiting tissue reactions at the nerve. Overcoming these challenges relies on cross-disciplinary expertise. Smith developed the wireless power transmitter, a similar model to the wireless power systems for drones and robots. Whereas, Moritz and team member Greg Horwitz, UW associate professor of physiology and biophysics, have expertise in optogenetics, which uses light to control neurons. By stimulating, but not physically touching, the pelvic nerve, swelling and scarring may be reduced. Collaborators at The University of Cambridge and University College of London have deep expertise in nerve and bladder physiology, as well as packaging implantable devices, so they don't corrode or breakdown in the body's moist and dynamic environment. One goal of the research is to limit exposure to pharmaceuticals. Wireless devices are more targeted interventions by stimulating or blocking specific nerves, whereas, drugs can affect many systems throughout the body. The devices can also “read” organ function and decipher whether treatment intervention is necessary. "We want to be able to say, 'Right now the blood pressure is high or the bladder is full — does the device need to do something or can the body be left alone?'" said Moritz. "That dramatically lowers the amount of treatment that's needed, as opposed to having someone on a drug 24 hours a day, seven days a week." After the competition concludes, the next steps will be to disseminate the technologies to the wider research community and begin human trials. The goal is to open up treatment options for a wide variety of organs. "The idea is that many groups could be pushing towards different human applications at the same time — not just for the bladder but for any organ. So our platform needs to be robust enough that people can dream wildly about what they want to treat with neural devices rather than pharmaceuticals," said Moritz. The project builds on research begun at CSNE. Early hardware development was supported by funding from thePaul G. Allen Family Foundation, where Smith and Moritz are Allen Distinguished Investigators. "It is gratifying to see the center's hardware research efforts paying off so quickly.  Selection by GlaxoSmithKline in this rigorous international competition shows that technologies emerging from the CSNE are at the leading edge of what is possible," Smith said. [post_title] => $1m for Rehabilitative Wireless Devices [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => prof-josh-smith-receives-1m-to-develop-new-wireless-device-for-rehabilitation [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-09-13 23:08:30 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-13 23:08:30 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://hedy.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=5100 [menu_order] => 101 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [5] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 1724 [post_author] => 15 [post_date] => 2015-06-11 19:59:56 [post_date_gmt] => 2015-06-11 19:59:56 [post_content] => [post_title] => Coiled and ready to strike [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => coiled-and-ready-to-strike [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2016-04-22 21:57:17 [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-04-22 21:57:17 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://hedy.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=1724 [menu_order] => 801 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) ) [post_count] => 6 [current_post] => -1 [in_the_loop] => [post] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10521 [post_author] => 12 [post_date] => 2017-04-26 15:59:54 [post_date_gmt] => 2017-04-26 22:59:54 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_10529" align="alignleft" width="407"]WiBotic CEO Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15) WiBotic CEO Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15)[/caption] WiBotic, the technology company developing wirelessly-powered drones and robotic devices, has secured $2.5 million. This new funding round will bring the company to a total of $3.25 million in funding. This support will enhance product development and boost sales and marketing. The company was founded by WiBotic CEO and UW Department of Electrical Engineering (UW EE) alum Ben Waters (Ph.D. '15) and UW EE and UW Allen School Professor Joshua Smith when Waters was a graduate student in the department. WiBotic currently delivers wireless robotics to companies in variety of fields for large-scale societal impact. Even though it is only 2-years-old, the ten-person company has already seen several significant milestones. WiBotic customers are utilizing the product to deliver medical supplies in developing nations, reduce excess water usage in agriculture, strengthen safe extraction of offshore oil and gas, monitor contamination levels in the ocean and respond to emergency situations more quickly. In November, WiBotic was named a "GeekWire Seattle Top Ten" as one of the most promising new startups in the region. Waters was named a Puget Sound Business Journal "40 Under 40" for his entrepreneurial energy and passion for innovation. “For two and a half years we have been developing innovative solutions for the robotics industry and I’m excited that several prestigious new investors are joining our team,” said Waters in a recent press release. “We look forward to the expertise and strategic thinking these firms will add to our strong team as we continue to provide critical infrastructure for robotic applications worldwide.” WiBotic's investment partners include Tsing Capital (the leader of the company's recent investment round), Comet Labs, Digi Labs, and follow-on investors W Fund, WRF Capital and Wisemont Capital. “The robotics industry has an intense need for the wireless power and battery intelligence solutions that WiBotic has built,” said Michael Li, managing partner of Tsing Capital in the press release. “WiBotic has been gaining strong traction in several industries and we see immense growth potential as the global robotics industry soars.” Tsing Capital is China’s leading fund management company, which is dedicated to sustainable technology  in China and globally. In addition to the new investment, WiBotic also announced the company's move to a new state-of-the-art engineering and testing facility at the University of Washington’s CoMotion Labs. At the lab's incubator program headquarters, WiBotic will continue to expand upon its core technology in a collaborative research hub.

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Original press release

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[post_title] => Startup WiBotic Raises $2.5M to Charge Drones and Robots Wirelessly [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => startup-wibotic-raises-2-5m-to-charge-drones-and-robots-wirelessly [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2017-04-26 16:11:14 [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-04-26 23:11:14 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => http://www.ee.washington.edu/?post_type=spotlight&p=10521 [menu_order] => 13 [post_type] => spotlight [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [comment_count] => 0 [current_comment] => -1 [found_posts] => 10 [max_num_pages] => 2 [max_num_comment_pages] => 0 [is_single] => [is_preview] => [is_page] => [is_archive] => 1 [is_date] => [is_year] => [is_month] => [is_day] => [is_time] => [is_author] => [is_category] => [is_tag] => [is_tax] => [is_search] => [is_feed] => [is_comment_feed] => [is_trackback] => [is_home] => [is_404] => [is_embed] => [is_paged] => [is_admin] => [is_attachment] => [is_singular] => [is_robots] => [is_posts_page] => [is_post_type_archive] => 1 [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => bc010328909d526644e6d2f11889dcda [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => 1 [thumbnails_cached] => [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => [compat_fields:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => query_vars_hash [1] => query_vars_changed ) [compat_methods:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => init_query_flags [1] => parse_tax_query ) ) )
 

Representative Publications

  • uMonitor: In-situ Energy Monitoring with Microwatt power consumption, Saman Naderiparizi, Aaron N. Parks, Farshid Salemi, Joshua R. Smith.
  • Large Area Wireless Power via a Planar Array of Coupled Resonators, Xingyi Shi, Joshua R. Smith, IEEE IWAT, Feb 2016.
  • Analysis of a Near Field Communication Wireless Power System, Yi Zhao, Brody Mahoney, Joshua R. Smith, IEEE WPTC, 2016.
  • A High-Voltage Compliant Neural Stimulator With HF Wireless Power and UHF Backscatter Communication, Vaishnavi Ranganathan, Brody Mahoney, Eric Pepin, Michael Sunshine, Chet T. Moritz, Jacques C. Rudell, Joshua R. Smith, IEEE WPTC, 2016.
  • Design and Analysis of Rectifying and Regulating Rectifier with PWM and PFM Modes, Vamsi Talla, Joshua R. Smith, IEEE Int'l Symposium on Circuits & Systems (ISCAS), May 2016.
  • Passive Wi-Fi: Bringing Low Power to Wi-Fi Transmissions, Bryce Kellogg, Vamsi Talla, Shyamnath Gollakota, Joshua R. Smith, Usenix Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), 2016.
Joshua R. Smith Headshot
Phone206-685-2094
jrs@cs.uw.edu
Web PageClick Here
Mail
556 CSE

Associated Labs

Research Areas

Affiliations

Innovation/Entrepreneurship

Education

  • Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, 1999
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • M.S. Electrical Engineering, 1995
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • M.A. Physics and Theoretical Physics, 1997
    University of Cambridge
  • B.A. Natural Sciences (Physics and Theoretical Physics), 1993
    University of Cambridge
  • B.A. Computer Science, Philosophy, 1991
    Williams College